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Raising tilapia (Budidaya ikan nila)

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How cultivation Fish Tilapia
(Budifaya Ikan Nila)

Tilapia Aquaculture

Tilapia (Ikan Nila) is the fish can only live in warm water. This tilapia fish from Africa and introduced in Indonesia about 30 years by the Center for Freshwater Aquaculture Development (BBPBAT). Tilapia fish farming can be maintained in ponds, lakes, rivers located in the village or town in which the water clean.

Type indigo first go to Indonesia is the kind of Oreochromis niloticus and tilapia species mozambigue or better known as tilapia. This type of indigo spread by BBPBAT many throughout the country.

The advantage of indigo cultivation is the ability to reproduce high enough. Between 2-3 months from seed, mature tilapia and can produce a single egg each month. Rapid nature of tilapia fish to produce children, causing overpopulation of tilapia in ponds, which resulted in the slow growth of fish. It can be seen bada tilapia at harvest, the size of tilapia fish, there are various sizes of small, medium, and large.

Male tilapia fish will look bigger than the female tilapia. According BBPBAT tilapia growth differences of male and female tilapia 40% difference. The slow growth of females in because their very nature to produce anan-fry. At the time of spawning tilapia, tilapia was also female does not eat for about less than 10 days. Performed by the female parent is keeping tilapia larvae in its mouth to a size big enough to be left by its mother. Reproduction of this occurred on land or swimming pool water in which the water cement calm.

Raising tilapia in floating net and rushing water can reduce the reproduction of small fish, because the process of spawning is difficult to do, so that the eggs of the female tilapia will be swept away and there is no quiet place to make nests and males fertilize the eggs of tilapia.

To produce a large rapid nila ie male tilapia may be some things done:

First, separate the male indigo children to be prepared in the enlargement. It is not easy because it is not efficient in large numbers and are generally less familiar fish farmers where females and males.

Second, do intercross to get the kind of parent who can produce male children. The technique is done with thorough research and testing that is not easy. Require sophisticated equipment, through laboratory tests to study the hormone XX is female and XY male.

Third, the most easy and less expensive method is by changing the type of female to male sex reversal with hormone use in tilapia larvae. This method is widely used in the cultivation of monoculture because it can be practiced by anyone.

How jantanisasi process?

The process of changing into male tilapia can be done by way of the feed containing a synthetic hormone known as METHYLTESTOSTERONE. This hormone will be a physical change female to male fish larvae. This technique first developed in Japan in the 1950s by Oryzias Medakh. The discovery was first tested on carp (Cyprinus Carpio) and later became a male sex hormone modifiers are widely used in tilapia.

In the 1970s widespread use of these hormones throughout the world, and few in Indonesia who use these hormones for sex reversal hormone price is quite expensive and must be imported from abroad. But little by little this hormone users continue to increase because it can trigger the growth of fish.

How do I use the hormone maker male?

Three step process to prepare tilapia monoculture:

1. Prepare the nile male and female parent. 1:3 weight between 150-250 grams perekor parent. Breeding tilapia can be performed on soil cement ponds or pools and better if done at the aquarium. When tilapia eggs hatch, the larvae of the female parent saves in his mouth and would allow her children after the age of about seven days. The children huddled together and the fish will often rise to the surface water, and when this started and move to capture a special pool for the preparation of feeding berhormon. Keep in mind that children will be fed fish berhormon no more than 11 days for the hormone can work with efektive.

2. berhormon feeding of tilapia in children only during 21 consecutive days. Can use the pool or pond soil cement. This pond does not need a big, 1x1x0.5 meters for easy monitoring, removal, maintenance.

3. berhormon feed sex modifier can be prepared beforehand, or message in

The first week of feeding larvae berhormon to 1000 as much as 30% of the weight of biomass. Pups in 1000 Average weight of fish 0:01 grams. So feeding approximately 3 grams per day, 4x gift at 80-10 hours in the morning and afternoon hours during the seven days 2-4.

Second Sunday of fish children has reached 18-22 mm long. reduce the density of juveniles in the pond becomes permeter 500 square tail. 1000 male children in the second week of fish had reached an average weight of 0:05 grams. The food is 25% percent of the weight of biomass, approximately 12.5 grams of feed. 4x a day for seven days.

The third Sunday juveniles already mencapati 25-30 mm. again reduce the density of fish in the pond becomes permeter 250 square tail. In the third week of the 1000 kittens fish had reached an average of 0.1 grams perekor. The food is as much as 20% of the total biomass. Approximately 20 grams per day for seven days.

After 21 days, feeding was stopped berhormon. Berhormon feeding this will result in 97-100% of children of male tilapia. Child survival rate of tilapia to reach 70-80 percent if the water quality good and the good maintenance.

Please note, during the 21 days the child should not be fed with fish other than berhormon feed! After 21 days Begin feeding containing no hormone.

Preparation child rearing fish raised in ponds

Tilapia seeds that have been given the hormone when it reached a length of 3.5-5 cm or an average weight of 0.5 grams already be stocked in rearing ponds. Enlargement should not exist on other types of fish such as catfish, cork or other fish in a pond.

Juveniles fed berhormon will grow faster than the children of mixed fish gender or who were not given hormones.

How Hormones Work Sex reversal?

Sex hormones in women known as XX and male XY chromosome. Sex hormone in humans are also on the species of animal. By using the artificial hormone, female juveniles at a certain age can be changed into males. This can only be performed on juveniles under 10 days. Fish that ate feed mixed with the hormone, 17 alpha methyltestosterone can change from XX to XY. While the XY or male fish will remain males and can not be changed again.

Changing the sex of male fish aimed at controlling the population of breeding fish in a pond. Reproduction of the children who did not regularly fish would decrease the growth of fish. By using a male sex hormone modifiers of fish growth will be faster because the male superior to female.

How to create an artificial sex berhormon feed?

Artificial fish feed modifiers sex or sex reversal can be made by following the steps below:

1. Dissolve 3 grams of 17 alpha methyltestosterone using 95% ethyl alcohol as much as 200 cc to dilute hormone granules.

2. prepare 1 kg of feed juveniles smooth like flour. Mix feed on hormone solution evenly.

3. dry feed mixed with a hormone, so the alcohol evaporates. Do not use sunlight. Drain overnight in a room.

4. if the feed is dry, put into a sealed container.

5. berhormon feed that can be used within 30 days.

Does using a feed berhormon economic value?

Less than 8 Rupian for each fish using hormones. Seed size of 0.5 grams of tilapia 35-5 cm in length or marketed at a price of Rp. Perekor 200-300. While the fish fries are given the hormone, sold under the higher valued property perekor 350-500.

Do fish that use the hormone safe?

Studies indicate after 5 days of feeding stops berhormon male tilapia do not contain harmful chemicals humans. And after a few months until the fish can be consumed, the consumer is guaranteed completely safe to eat tilapia jantanisasi results.

Tilapia fish can only live mostly in tropical areas like Indonesia. However, in the State four seasons also membudidaya tilapia with modern ways. Irrigation system using a heater in winter.

Recognize and know the basic knowledge of tilapia farming;

- Tilapia fish spawning females between 2000-2500 depending on the tail of the smaller carriers. Survival rate depends on the quality of water and feed.

Tilapia fish spawn in the range of four to six (4-6) weeks or it could be faster if the seeds have been released by the parent fish.

- Eggs in fish larvae will be stored in the parent's mouth nila. Tilapia eggs will hatch between five to seven (5-7) days. After the larvae hatch or a child's parent will oversee tilapia fish with his mouth.

- Comparison of male indigo and bertina marriage; 1:3 input in every square meter of four to five pairs of parent pairs indigo, (5 male and 20 female tilapia) permeter square.

- Temperature tilapia fish farming should be 25 ° C-31 ° C for spawning.

- Temperature below 13 ° C tilapia will die.

- Temperature between 15 ° C-20 ° C slow growing tilapia. 22 ° C-31 ° C tilapia will grow rapidly as the temperature like that would make love to eat tilapia.

- Production of tilapia ranges from 2-3 tons persetengah hectares.

- Feed Pellet tengelam indigo and floating pellets as much as 3.5 tons

- Nila heavy consumption of 200 gr. Up to 800 gr. Perekor depending on consumer demand and the market.

- Foods containing protein tilapia 25-30 percent and 6-8 percent fat.

Just a hobby, or to eat, or to make additional income source. tilapia is a potential that can be glimpsed by anyone who wants mengelutinya, a decent income if dikelolah well. In addition to supporting the region such as water, food availability is also very possible in every area of this rich Indonesia. So, you also can certainly membudidaya tilapia with a little know how to raise tilapia.