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RAISING Dairy Cows (Sapi Perah)

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RAISING Dairy Cows
(Budidaya Sapi Perah)

RAISING dairy cows
(Bos sp.)

RAISING dairy cows


Cattle are the most important livestock as a source of meat, milk, labor and other needs. Cows produce about 50% (45-55%) of meat in the world, 95% of milk and 85% of the skin. Beef comes from the family Bovidae. such as bison, bison, water buffalo (Bubalus), African buffalo (Syncherus), and Anoa.

Domestication of cattle began to be about 400 years BC. Cattle are thought to originate from Central Asia, then spread to Europe, Africa and throughout Asia. Towards the end of the 19th century, Ongole cattle from India entered into the island of Sumba and since then the island will serve as a place of pure Ongole cattle breeding.

In 1957 has made the genetic improvement of cattle by road Madura cattle crossed with Red Deen. Other crosses between local cattle (Peranakan Ongole) with Holstein Frisian dairy cows in Grati to obtain a new type of dairy cattle according to the climate and conditions in Indonesia.


Sentra cattle farm in the world exist in European countries (Scotland, UK, Denmark, France, Switzerland, Netherlands), Italy, America, Australia, Africa and Asia (India and Pakistan). Holstein Friesian cows for example, is known for high milk production (+ 6350 kg / yr), with milk fat percentage of about 3-7%. However, dairy cows are there that can produce up to reach 25,000 kg of milk / year, when the seeds are used, given the feed to suit the needs of livestock, the environment that support and implement cultivation with good management. Currently the world's milk production reached 385 million m2/ton/th, especially in the temperate zone. PSPB cow milk production is still less than 10 liters / day and away from the normal standard of 12 liters / day (the average is only 5-8 liters / day).

3. J E N I S

Broadly speaking, the nations cow (Bos) contained in the world there are two, namely (1) those derived from Zebu cattle (Bos indicus) or type of humped cattle, which originated and spread in the tropics and (2) group from Bos primigenius, which spread in sub tropical or better known as Bos Taurus.

Type of superior dairy cows and cows are kept most Shorhorn (from England), Friesian Holstein (the Netherlands), Yersey (of the strait Channel between England and France), Brown Swiss (from Switzerland), Red Danish (from Denmark) and Droughtmaster (from Australia).

PSPB Cibinong Survey results indicate that the type of dairy cows are most suitable and profitable to be cultivated in Indonesia is Frisien Holstein.


Dairy farms produce meat as a source of protein, dairy, leather used for industrial and animal manure as a source of organic land



Ideal location to build the enclosure is an area that is located quite far away from residential areas but easily accessible by vehicle. Cages should be separate from the residence with a minimum distance of 10 meters and the sun should be able to penetrate the stable yard and close to agricultural land. Making can be done in groups in the middle of rice fields.


6.1. Preparation Facility and Equipment

The cage can be made in the form of double or single, depending on the number of cattle owned. In the single-cage type, placement cow done on one line or one line, while the double-cage type of placement done in two ranks facing each other or opposite each other. Among the ranks are normally made to the road lane.

Making cages for fattening purposes (kereman) are usually singular when the capacity of livestock kept only slightly. However, if the activity is intended for commercial cattle production, the size of the cage should be wider and bigger so it can accommodate a greater number of cows.

Cage floor should be sought to keep clean in order to prevent the spread of various diseases. The floor is made of solid soil or cement, and easy to clean from cow dung. Ground floor covered with dry straw as the bed cage warm.

All parts of the cage and the equipment that used to be consecrated hamakan first with a disinfectant, such as creolin, lysol, and other bahanbahan.

The size of the cage that is made for adult bull is 1.5 m or 2.5 x2 x2 m, while for adult cows was 1.8 m and x2 for the calf is 1.5 x1 m per cow, with a high of + 2-2, 5 m from the ground. Temperatures around the cage 25-40 degrees C (average 33 degrees C) and humidity 75%. Location of maintenance can be performed on the lowlands (100-500 m) to the highlands (> 500 m).

6.2. Nurseries
Conditions to be met by adult female dairy calves are: (a) high milk production, (b) 3.5 to 4.5 years of age and had been childless, (c) is derived from the parent and males who have eturunan production high milk, (d) body shape like a wedge, (e) his eyes glowing, his back straight, good head shape, the distance of the front legs or rear legs wide enough and strong legs, (f) The udder is large, linkage to the body well enough, if palpable soft, smooth skin, a lot of milk vein, length and berkelokkelok, nipples no more than 4, is located in a symmetrical rectangular and not too short, (g) the body healthy and not as carriers of infectious diseases, and (h) each year lambing.

While holding a good candidate, among others: (a) derived from the parent that produce milk high, (b) the head and neck a little long, sharp shoulders, long body, back and hips flat, chest deep and wide hips, (c) distance between the two rear legs and front legs wide enough, (d) growth good udder and nipples, (e) the number of nipples no more than 4 and is located symmetrically, and (f) healthy and not disabled.

Males that both must meet the following criteria: (a) the age of about 4-5 years, (b) has a high fertility, (c) power down the nature of high production to their children, (d) is derived from the male parent and a good , (e) of the body according to age, strong, and has the properties of a good stud, (f) width of head, neck, waist width, strong backs, (g) face a bit long, slightly sharp and broad shoulders, ( h) flat thigh and quite separately, (i) chest width and the distance between the ribs is wide enough, (j), body length, chest deep, chest circumference and large abdominal circumference, and (k) healthy, free from infectious diseases and did not decrease defects in offspring.

1) The selection of seeds and the prospective parent
To pursue a high animal productivity, environmental improvements and improving the genetic quality of livestock in question.
Seeds of the new arrivals should be quarantined for disease transmission. Then the seedlings were given drinking water mixed with salt, placed in a clean cage and weighed and recorded his performance.

2) Treatment of seedlings and the prospective parent
All of the dairy cow virgin who has not shown signs of estrus or not pregnant after a certain period, should be set aside. If a cow has been set aside to produce milk, cows were selected again on the basis of milk production, prone to inflammation of the udder and temperament.

3) System Pemuliabiakan
Often dairy cows mated with a male virgin beef to reduce the risk of trouble just after birth and results in children one male mated with a choice of dairy cows. Seedlings should be given the opportunity to move on at least 2 hours every day.

6.3. Maintenance

1. Sanitation and Preventive Action
In intensive care the cows watching him grounded so easy breeders, while maintaining an extensive oversight difficult because the cows are reared allowed to live freely. Dairy cows are kept in the shade (room) has a conception of higher production (19%) and milk production 11% more than without shade. Diseased seedlings and seedlings treated immediately because of before lambing kandangkan dried for 1-2 months.
2. Animal Care
Livestock bathed 2 days. All cows parent bathed every day after the cage is cleaned and before the milking. Cages should be cleaned every day, dirt cage placed on a special container that can be processed into fertilizer. After the cage is cleaned, the floors should be given a mattress as flooring are generally made of straw or feed forage remnants (mattress once a week should be dismantled).

Weighing made from cow's calf to adulthood. Cow calf cows were weighed once a week while the adults were weighed every month or 3 months. Newly weaned cows were weighed once a month. Adult cow can be weighed by the estimated measurement based on the circumference and width of chest, shoulder length and height.
3. Feeding
In cattle feeding can be done by 3 ways, namely:

a) grazing systems (Pasture fattening)

b) kereman (dry lot fattening)

c0 combination of first and second ways.

4. Food that is provided in the form of forage and concentrates. Forage in the form of rice straw, sugar cane shoots, lamtoro, alfalfa, grass, grass or grass king of Bengal. Given forage during the day after milking as much as 30-50 kg / head / day. Grass for cattle feed adults generally given as much as 10% of body weight (BW) and additional food as much as 1-2% of body weight.
Cows who are breastfeeding (lactating) need supplementary food at 25% forage and concentrate in the rations. Forage in the form of fresh grass should be added to the type of beans (legumes).
Sources of carbohydrates in the form of fine bran or rice bran, tofu waste, cassava, and coconut cake and minerals (as amplifier) in the form of table salt, lime, etc.. The feeding of concentrate should be given in the morning and evening before the cows milked as much as 1-2 kg / head / day.
Besides food, the cow should be given water to drink as much as 10% of body weight per day.
Major maintenance is the provision of adequate and quality feed, and keep cleaning the cage and the health of livestock kept. The food is kereman combined with grazing in the early dry season, every day cattle shepherd. In the rainy season cages and feed cattle are given according to their food. Grazing is also intended to give an opportunity to move the cattle in order to strengthen his legs.
5. Maintenance Cage
Dirt dumped in other places to experience the process of fermentation (+1-2 weeks) and turned into manure that was mature and well. Cowshed should not be tightly closed (slightly open) for air circulation inside running smoothly.
Clean drinking water should be available at all times. Place food and drink should be made outside of the cage but still below the roof. Feeder is made somewhat higher for the feed is not being trampled or mixed with dirt. While the drinking water should be made permanent in the form of cement and slightly higher than the floor surface. Also provide equipment for bathing the cattle.


7.1. Disease

1. Anthrax Disease
Cause: Bacillus anthracis is transmitted through direct contact, food / beverage or breathing.
Symptoms: (1) high fever, body weakness and trembling; (2) respiratory, (3) swelling of the glands chest, neck, genital ulcers and full body, (4) sometimes dark red blood that comes out through your nose , ears, mouth, anus and vagina, (5) of liquid manure and often mixed with blood, (6) spleen was swollen and blackish in color.
Control: vaccination, antibiotic treatment, isolation of infected cattle and bury / burn the dead cows.

2. Foot and mouth disease (FMD) or disease Apthae epizootica (AE)
Cause: The virus is transmitted through direct contact with urine, breast milk, saliva and other objects contaminated with germs AE.
Symptoms: (1) oral cavity, tongue, and soles of the feet or tracak blistered and there are fluid-filled spherical bulge of the cornea, (2) fever or heat, body temperature dropped dramatically, (3) decreased appetite would not even eat at all; (4) excessive salivation out.
Control: vaccination and the sick cow was exiled and treated separately.

3. Disease snoring / mendekur or disease Septichaema epizootica (SE)
Cause: Pasturella multocida bacteria. Transmission through contaminated food and beverages bacteria.
Symptoms: (1) scalp and mucous membranes of the tongue swollen, red and blue, (2) neck, anus, and vulva swell, (3) inflamed lungs, intestines and stomach mucous membrane sour and dark red, (4 ) fever and difficult breathing, so similar to the snoring. In very severe circumstances, the cow will die in the time between 12-36 hours.
Control: vaccination anti-SE and given antibiotics or sulfa.

4. Inflammatory disease nails or nail rot (foot rot)
The disease attacks the cattle are kept in a cage wet and dirty.
Symptoms: (1) initially swelling around the nail slot and issue a cloudy white liquid, (2) skin peeling nails, (3) growing bumps that cause pain, (4) cows limping and eventually paralyzed.

7.2. Attack Prevention
Prevention and treatment efforts made by cutting the nails and soak the affected part in the solution for 30 minutes refanol repeated once a week and put the cattle in the pens clean and dry.

8. P A N E N

8.1. Main Results
The main result of the cultivation of dairy cows is the milk produced by the female parent.

8.2. By-product
Apart from dairy cow milk also gives another outcome that is flesh and skin that comes from cows that are not productive and manure produced from cattle dung.




10.1. Cultivation of Business Analysis
Dairy cattle business in Indonesia is still a subsistence by small farmers and have not reached the economic-oriented business. The low level of productivity of cattle is more due to the lack of capital, and knowledge / skills of farmers that includes aspects of reproduction, feeding, management of post-harvest results, the application of recording system, milking, sanitation and disease prevention. In addition, farmers' knowledge about aspects of the trade system should be improved so that the benefits proportional to their maintenance.

Cow milk production in the world now exceeds 385 million m2/ton/th with sales of cows and their products are greater than the calf, bulls, and cows afkiran. In the United States, the level of sales and purchases of cattle and their products in cash reached 13% of all farms in the world. While selling rate calf (calf), male dairy cow, and cow rejects only about 3%. Milk production number that still needs to be increased in line with the increasing number of people in this world.

To achieve high production levels, the management and delivery of feed must be in strict accordance with the needs of cattle, which feed the minimum that can be utilized by livestock (absorbed) grown about 3.5 - 4% of dry matter.

10.2. Agribusiness Opportunity Overview
Family dairy farm business profitable if the number of cattle that are at least as much as 6 tails, although the level of efficiency can be achieved with minimal exertion as much as 2 tails with an average milk production of 15 lt / day. Efforts to increase farmers' income through cultivation of dairy cattle can also be done by diversifying its business. In addition, cooperative efforts and integrative (horizontal and vertical) with other farmers and other competent agencies, and still stabilize the PIR above.


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1. Rural Community Economic Development Project - BAPPENAS
Coconut Jl.Sunda No. 7 Jakarta, Tel. 021 390 9829, Fax. 021 390 9829

2. Office of State Minister for Research and Technology, Deputy Head of Administrative and Penal Science and Technology, BPPT Building II, 6th Floor, Jl. M. H. Thamrin No. 8, Jakarta 10340, Indonesia, Tel. +62 21 316 9166 ~ 69, Fax. +62 21 310 1952, Website:

Source:Rural Community Economic Development Project, Bappenas