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( Lumbricus sp.)

Earthworms including lower animals because they do not have a spine (invertebrates). Earthworm belongs to the class Oligochaeta. The most important families of this class and Lumbricidae Worms Megascilicidae land animals that are not foreign to our society, particularly for rural communities. However, these animals have amazing potential for human life and human welfare.


Centers have the largest worm farms in West Java, Bandung-Sumedang and especially the surrounding areas.


The types of the most widely developed by humans comes from a family with the genus Megascolicidae and Lumbricidae Lumbricus, Eiseinia, Pheretima, Perionyx, Diplocardi and Lidrillus. Some type of worm that is now widely diternakan include: Pheretima, and Periony Lumbricus. The three types of earthworms are fond of organic matter derived from manure and the remains of plants. Lumbricus earthworm species has a slender body shape. Total segment owned approximately 90-195 and klitelum located on segments 27-32. Normally this kind can not compete with other species so that its body is smaller. But when reared a large body could match or exceed other types. Earthworm species Pheretima reached 95-150 segment segment. Klitelumnya lies in the 14-16 segment. His body was long and cylindrical shaped gilik purplish red. Earthworm Pheretima which includes among other types of red worms, worm and worm koot necklace. Earthworm species Perionyx gilik shaped dark purple to red-brown with a number of segments 75-165 and klitelumnya located on segment 13 and 17. This worm is usually somewhat spoiled in their maintenance is required so that more serious attention. Earthworm species Lumbricus rubellus has more advantages than the other two types mentioned above, because of high productivity (weight gain, egg production / seedling production and ex-worm "casting") and sedentary


In agriculture, worms destroy organic matter which improves soil aeration and structure. As a result of land into fertile and absorption of nutrients from the soil to be good. The presence of earthworms will increase the population of beneficial microbes that plant. In addition, earthworms can be used as:

1. Livestock Feed Ingredients
Thanks to the contents of protein, high fat and minerals, earthworms can be used as animal feed such as poultry, fish, shrimp and frogs.
2. Raw materials and ingredients medicine to cure diseases.
Traditionally earthworms are believed to alleviate fever, lowers blood pressure, cure bronchitis, rheumatic joints, toothache and typhoid.
3. Cosmetic Raw Materials
Worms can be processed for use as a skin moisturizer and lipstick-making raw materials.
4. Human Food
Worms is a potential source of protein for inclusion as a human food ingredients such as beef or chicken.


1. Soil as a medium of live worms must contain organic ingredients in large numbers.
2. Soil organic materials can be derived from litter (fallen leaves), animal manure or dead plants and animals. Earthworms like material that is easy to rot because they are more easily digested by the body.
3. For good growth, earthworms need the soil to neutral or slightly acidic pH of about 6 to 7.2. With these conditions, the bacteria in the earthworm body can work optimally for the conduct of decomposition or fermentation.
4. Optimum moisture for the growth and proliferation of earthworms is between 15-30%.
5. Temperature required for growth of earthworms and cocoon hatching was around 15-25 degrees C or lukewarm. Temperatures higher than 25 degrees C there was still a good long enough shading and optimal humidity.
6. Location cultivated earthworms maintenance to ensure easy handling and oversight and not exposed to direct sunlight, for example, under the shade tree at the edge of the house or in a special room (permanent), whose roof is made from materials which do not carry the light and does not store heat.


1. Preparation Facility and Equipment
Making the cage should use inexpensive materials and easy to obtain, such as bamboo, thatch, the former board, palm fiber and clay tile. One example of a permanent enclosure for large-scale farm size is 1.5 x 18 m with a height of 0.45 m. Made therein storied shelves as a place containers of maintenance. Buildings can also shed without walls (open building). Models of farming systems, among other berbaki shelves, stacked boxes, fishing rod or reel-story row ..
2. Seeding
Preparation necessary in the cultivation of earthworms is a mix of media to grow, providing seeds, prepare the cage and the cage protectors worms.
1. Prospective Parent Seed Selection
We recommend that in raising earthworms commercially used because of existing seedlings needed in large numbers. However, when starting from a small scale can also be used seeds from the wild earthworms, namely from the rotting piles of garbage from landfills or animal waste.
2. Prospective Parent Seed Maintenance
Maintenance can be divided into a number of ways:
1. maintenance of earthworms as many suitable places for use. Earthworms can be selected young or adult. If the nest as high as about 0.3 m, 2.5 m long and approximately 1 m wide, can fit about 10 000 mature earthworms tail.
2. starting with small amounts of maintenance. If the total has increased, partly earthworms transferred to another vessel.
3. how a combination of maintenance and b.
4. special maintenance cocoon until the child, as an adult he moved to another vessel.
5. Special maintenance adult worms as a seed.
3. Pemuliabiakan System
If the media are ready and seedling maintenance earthworms already exists, then the investment can be immediately implemented in the container maintenance. Seeds of worm that is not quite as well as incorporated into the media, but must be tried piecemeal. Several seeds were placed on top of earthworms media, then observed whether the seeds of the worm into the media or not. If you look inside, another new worm seeds included. Every three hours once observed, there may be loitering in the media or anyone leaving the media (the container). If within 12 hours no one left the container means that earthworms at home and the media are suitable. Conversely, if the media do not match, the worm will roam the surface of the media. To overcome this, the media must be immediately replaced with new ones. Repairs can be done by flushing with water, then squeezed juice until the water looks clear in color (not black or dark brown).
4. Reproduction, Marriage
Hermaphroditic animals, including earthworms, which have the genitalia of male and female in one body. However, for the conception, can not do for himself. A pair of mating earthworms, each will produce a cocoon containing the eggs. Cocoon-shaped oval and measured about one third of the heads of matches. Cocoon was placed in a humid place. Within the cocoon will hatch 14-21 days. Each cocoon will produce 20-20 tails, on average four tails. An estimated 100 worms can produce 100 000 worms in one year. Adult earthworms started after 2-3 months of age marked by a bracelet (klitelum) on the front of the body. During 70-10 days after mating adult worms will produce a cocoon.
3. Maintenance
1. Feeding
Earthworms fed once a day and a night of heavy worm that is planted. If that were planted 1 Kg, then the feed must be provided also have a kg. In general, earthworms feed is in the form of any animal feces, except sewage, which is only used as a medium. Things that need to be considered in feeding on earthworms, among others:
* Feed given should be used as powder or puree with blender.
* Average slurry feed sprinkled on top of the media, but does not cover the entire surface of the media, about 2-3 of the crate is not sprinkled with the feed container.
* Food covered with plastic, sacks, or other materials that are not opaque.
* The next feeding, when the previous feed remaining, must be stirred and the amount of feed is reduced.
* Slurry feed to be given to the earthworm has a 1:1 ratio of water.
2. Replacement Media
Media that has become the land / casting or have a lot of egg (cocoon) should be replaced. Worms so quickly grow, then the egg, the child and parent are separated and grown on new media. The average replacement media made within two Sunday.
3. Parturition
Materials for nest-making media are: animal manure, leaves / fruit, banana trunks, household waste, market waste, paper paper / cardboard / bark / wood pulp. Materials that are available first cut along the 2.5 Cm. Various materials, except manure, stirred and added water, then stir again. Material mix and kotaran cattle rolled into one with a percentage ratio of 70:30 plus enough water to keep moist.

7. Pests and diseases

Earthworm breeding success can not be separated from the control of pest and enemy worm. Some enemies of pests and earthworms include: ants, beetles, birds, centipedes, millipedes, flies, mice, frogs, squirrels, chickens, duck, snake, swan, leeches, ticks and others. Also feared enemy is the red ants that eat the earthworms feed that contains carbohydrates and fats. Though both of these substances needed for fattening worm. Prevention of attacks carried out by the red ants around the container maintenance (dirambang) given enough water.


In the breeding of earthworms there are two important results (main) that can be expected, the biomass (earthworms itself) and vermi (worm marks). Harvested worms can be done in various ways one of them is using a tool such as lighting petromaks lighting, neon lamp, or bulb. Earthworms are very sensitive to light so they would gather at the top of the media. Then we just separate the earthworms that with the medium. There is a more economical way of harvesting by reversing the nest. Behind this dark nest of worms is usually easy to assemble and worms collected, then a nest behind the back and separate the worms are left. If at the time of harvest was apparent and the cocoon (egg collection), then returned to their nests and fed with the original container until about 30 days. In that period, the eggs will hatch. And earthworms can be taken to move into a new container maintenance and kascingnya ready at harvest.

9. Postharvest: ....


1. Cultivation of Business Analysis
Approximate analysis of earthworm cultivation in Bandung (West Java) to cope in 1999 are as follows:
1. Fixed capital
1. Lease the land area of 200 m 2 / year ------------------------------------------ ------- USD. 120 000, -
2. Protective enclosure: bamboo & thatch roofing ----------------------------------- USD. 150 000, -
3. Uk corral X18 1.5 m 2, Tg 50 Cm: 11 pcs -------------------------------- USD. 600.000, -
4. Media:
* Materials Media 6 Ton, @ Rp. ------------------------------------------- 100.00 USD. 600.000, -
* Plastic 200 m, @ Rp. 1600.00 / m --------------------------------------------- rp. 320 000, -
* Midrib Banana ----------------------------------------------- ----------------- USD. 25.000, -
Total ------------------------------------------------- ----------------------- USD. 1.815 million, -
2. Depreciation costs
1. Land ------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------- USD. 40.000, -
2. Protective cage ------------------------------------------------ ---------------- Rp. 16 667, -
3. Livestock enclosure ------------------------------------------------ ------------------- USD. 66 667, -
4. Media
Media ----------------------------------------------- * Ingredients ------------------- USD. 300.000, -
* Plastic ------------------------------------------------ ------------------------- USD. 160 000, -
* Midrib Banana ----------------------------------------------- ------------------ USD. 6250, -
Total ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------ USD. 589 584, -
3. Working Capital
1. Seed as much as 40 Kg, @ Rp. 200,000.00 / Kg -------------------------------------- USD. 8.000.000, -
2. Feed in the form of waste vegetables (cabbage, cucumber) 5 Ton @ Rp. 500, - ------------ USD. 2.500.000, -
3. Manpower four people @ USD. 100 000, -/month -------------------------------------- USD. 400.000, -
Total ------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------- USD. 10.9 million, -
4. Total capital required:
1. Fixed capital ------------------------------------------------ ------------------------ USD. 1.815 million, -
2. Working capital ------------------------------------------------ ------------------------ USD. 10.9 million, -
Total ------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------- USD. 12.715 million, -
5. Production / 4 months
During four months of 1600 Kg, @ Rp.210.000, per kg ------------------------------------ ------- USD. 336 000 000, -
6. Production costs / 4 months
1. Depreciation Expense ------------------------------------------------ -------------------- USD. 589 584, -
2. Working capital ------------------------------------------------ ------------------------- USD. 10.9 million, -
Total ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------ USD. 11,489,584, -
7. Gains / 4 months
1. Production / four months ---------------------------------------------- ----------------------- USD. 336 000 000, -
2. Production costs / 4 months --------------------------------------------- ------------------ USD. 1,489,584, -
Total ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------ USD. 324 510 416, -
8. Break Even Point
1. Gains / 4 months ---------------------------------------------- --------------------- USD. 324 510 416, -
2. Production Costs / 4 months --------------------------------------------- ------------------- USD. 11,489,584, -
Total ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------ USD. 313 020 822, -
---------------------------------------------- Gain over 4 months ------------ USD. 313 020 822, -
Production net Fortunately USD. 313 020 822, -/120 hr ----------------------------------- USD. 2,608,506, -
BEP = Fixed Costs [1 - (Cost Depreciation: Gain)]
= Rp. 1,815,000.00 [1 - (589 584 IDR: Rp. 324 510 416, -)]
= Rp. 1,815,000.00 [1 - 0.0018]
= Rp. 1,815,000.00 X 0.9982
= Rp. 1,811,733.00

That means the level of sales amounted to USD. 1811733.00 / 4 months
9. Return on Capital
Capital Return = [Total capital required / (profit + depreciation)] * 1bulan = 1.733 month or two months in a time production. So the tempo needed to cover the investment return is the first time or two months of harvest.
2. Agribusiness Opportunity Overview
Earthworm is an export commodity that recently received a great response from farmers or businessmen. This is because the international market demand and the lack of production of earthworms. Raising earthworms can give great results with good handling.


1. Asep, Interview with Breeder Earthworm (Bandung: Sun 'at, July 2, 1999).
2. Budiarti, Asiani, Palungkun, Roni, Earthworm (New York: Diffuser Self Reliance, 1992).
3. Endang, Interview with Breeder Earthworm (Bogor: Sun 'at, July 8, 1999).
4. Hamzah, Interview with Breeder Earthworm (Bogor: Sun 'at, July 8, 1999).
5. Hud, Interview with Breeder Earthworm (Bogor: Sun 'at, July 8, 1999).
6. Rudi, Interview with Breeder Earthworm (Bandung: Sun 'at, July 2, 1999).
7. Sayuti, Fahri, Earthworm Raising Practical Guide (New York: Center for Training and Development, 1999).
8. Syaeful, Interview with Breeder Earthworm (Bogor: Sun 'at, July 8, 1999).
9. Waluyo, Neno, Interview with the Student Breeder Earthworm (Bogor: Thursday, June 24th l999).


1. Rural Community Economic Development Project - Coconut No. Jl.Sunda BAPPENAS. 7 Jakarta, Tel. 021 390 9829, Fax. 021 390 9829
2. Office of State Minister for Research and Technology, Utilization and Correctional Deputy Science and Technology, BPPT Building II, 6th Floor, Jl. M. H. Thamrin No. 8, 10 340 Jakarta, Indonesia, Tel. +62 21 316 9166 ~ 69, Fax. +62 21 310 1952, Website:

Source: Rural Community Economic Development Project, Bappenas